All of the ongoing soybean research in the McHale lab is intended to contribute to the very applied goal of new cultivar development. The OSU soybean breeding program focuses on development of non-GMO soybeans which are well adapted to the Ohio and North-Central growing regions. Breeding goals include resistance to pests and pathogens important in Ohio and the North-Central region, improved quality traits important in the specialty food-grade soybean market, and added value traits such as low-linolenic acid.
Resistance to pest and pathogens
Seedling diseases: Essential to soybean yields is establishment of a good stand. In order to protect against seedling diseases we are selecting lines with improved resistance to Phytophthora sojae, Pythium irregulare, etc. Selections are made by phenotypic screening conducted by plant pathologists in the Dr. Anne Dorrance’s laboratory. In collaboration with the Dorrance laboratory and others, we have ongoing efforts to genetically map the sources of this disease resistance; thus, enabling the use ofmolecular markers for selection rather than phenotypic screening. This research is funded in part by the United Soybean Board, the Ohio soybean farmer’s checkoff program, and a grant from the Ohio Agricultural Research and Discovery Center (OARDC).
Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN): Selections are made by phenotypic screening conducted in Dr. Terry Niblack’s laboratory. In collaboration with the laboratories of Dr. Chris Taylor and Dr. Niblack, we are screening advanced lines and cultivars for their resistance to different races of SCN. This research is funded in part by the Ohio Seed Improvement Association and by the Ohio soybean farmer’s checkoff program.
Soybean aphid: Several biotype specific resistance genes have been characterized for soybean aphid. These genes are known as Rag1 to rag4 (Hill et al., 2006; Mian et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2010). We are using marker assisted selection to pyramid these genes in cultivars to provide resistance against multiple biotypes of soybean aphid. This research is funded in part by the Ohio soybean farmer’s checkoff program. In addition, we are working with Dr. Andrew Michel's laboratory to evaluate the level of susceptibility in advanced breeding lines and cultivar releases.
We are also part of a Scientifc Team within the Center for Applied Plant Sciences which aims to learn how effective quantitative resistance in soybean can be for broad-spectrum control of fungal, oomycete (both necrotrophs and biotrophs), insect and nematode pathogens and by which mechanisms the resistance is conferred.
Specialty food-grade soybeans
Approximately 10% of soybeans grown in Ohio are processed into specialty products such as tofu, soymilk, and natto for human consumption. Soybean cultivars growth for these purposes have specific quality traits including the seed protein, oil and sugar content, seed shape and size, water uptake ability of the seed, and the seed coat and hilum color and appearance (Zhang et al., 2010). Our research efforts are focused on identifying genes conferring variation for these traits. Breeding efforts are aimed at optimizing these traits to meet the demands of specific processors while maintaining high soybean yields and an excellent disease resistance package. This research is funded in part by the Ohio soybean farmer’s checkoff program.
Ohio food-grade soybean varieties. Photography by Alba McIntyre.
Modified fatty acid
Soybean oil is composed of five fatty acids, palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), and linolenic (18:3). Human health, food & manufacturing industries require specific compositions of these fatty acids in order to improve the efficiency of oil processing and/or improve its value. Alteration of the fatty acid composition can be achieved through transgenic silencing or mutagenis of key genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway (Bilyeu et al., 2005; Bilyeu et al., 2006; Chappel et al., 2006; Cardianl et al., 2007; Clemente and Cahoon, 2009; Dierking and Bilyeu, 2009; Pham et al., 2011). Mutations in fatty acid biosynthesis genes can be combined and selected for to achieve low-linoleic and high oleic acid (Beuselink et al., 2006; Pham et al., 2010; Pham et al., 2011). These mutations are being introgressed into elite Ohio-adapted cultivars by marker-assisted selection. Our research efforts are focused on identifying novel variation in genes possibly contributing to oil content and composition through sequencing of germplasm using next-generation sequencing technologies. This research is funded in part by the United Soybean Board, by the Ohio soybean farmer’s checkoff program, and by the Ohio Plant Biotechnology Consortium.
OSU-OARDC soybean cultivars
A number of cultivars developed by the OSU soybean breeding program are available. Soybean cultivars developed at OSU are primarily released via two mechanisms, branded cultivars or public cultivars.
To learn more about our branded cultivars and obtain a license, please contact our Technology Licensing Manager, Melissa Kelly, at the OSU Technology and Commercialization Office. For those interested in purchasing seed, please contact Ohio Foundation Seeds, Inc.
The OSIA Annual Directory provides a listing and description of public cultivars as well as producer contact information where farmers can obtain seed price and availability information. For further information regarding sources for certified seed please contact the Ohio Seed improvement Association. General information and links to the registration or release articles for these public cultivars are provided in the table below.
Cultivar Release year Relative Maturity Notes Targeted use Lorain 2014 3.4 Excellent partial and race specific, Rps1c, resistance to P. sojae General use Clermont 2012 3.9 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1c and Rps3a. PVPA 201400076. General use Wyandot-14 2012 2.9 Resistance to aphid (Rag2) & powdery mildew (Rmd_PI243540). Developed by Rouf Mian, USDA-ARS, Wooster. General use or food-grade (soymilk) Summit 2010 2.6 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1k andRps3a General use Streeter 2008 3.0 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1k andRps3a General use Dennison 2006 3.5 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1k andRps3 General use Wyandot 2006 2.9 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps3 General use or food-grade (soymilk) Dilworth 2002 3.1 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1k andRps3a General use Kottman 1999 3.7 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1k andRps3 General use Ohio FG1 1994 3.4 Race specific resistance to races 1, 3, 4, 25, but not race 7 of P. sojae Food-grade (tofu or soymilk) Sandusky 1993 2.9 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1k General use Resnik 1987 3.5 Race specific resistance to P. sojae, Rps1k General use
Beuselinck P, Sleper D, Bilyeu K (2006) A retrospective assessment of phenotype selection for linolenic acid in soybean using genetic markers. Crop Sci. 46: 747-750.
Bilyeu KD, Palavalli L, Sleper DA, Beuselinck PR (2005) Mutations in soybean microsomal omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes reduce linolenic acid concentration in soybean seeds. Crop Sci. 45: 1830-1836.
Bilyeu KD, Palavalli L, Sleper DA, Beuselinck PR (2006) Molecular genetic resources for development of 1% linolenic acid soybeans. Crop Sci. 46:1913-1918.
Cardinal AJ, Burton JW, Cmacho-Roger A-M, Yang JH, Wilson RF, Dewey RE (2007) Molecular Analysis of Soybean Lines with Low Palmitic Acid Content in the Seed Oil. Crop Sci. 47: 304-310.
Chappell AS, Bilyeu KD (2006) A GmFAD3A mutation in the low linolenic acid soybean mutant C1640. Plant Breeding. 125: 535-536.
Clemente TE, Cahoon EB (2009) Soybean Oil: Genetic Approaches for Modification of Functionality and Total Content. Plant Physiology. 151: 1030-1040.
Dierking EC, Bilyeu KD. (2009) New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING. BMC Plant Biol. 9: 89.
Fioritto RJ, St. Martin SK, Dorrance AE, Cooper RL (2004) Registration of ‘Dilworth’ Soybean. Crop Sci 44: 691.
Hill CB, Li Y, Hartman GL (2006) A single dominant gene for resistance to the soybean aphid in the soybean cultivar Dowling. Crop Sci. 46: 1601-1605.
McBain BA, Fioritto RJ, St. Martin SK, Calip-DuBois A, Schmitthenner AF, Cooper RL, Martin RJ (1990) Registration of ‘Resnik’ Soybean. Crop Sci 30: 424-425
McHale LK, Feller MK, McIntyre SA, Berry SA, St. Martin SK, Dorrance AE (2012) Registration of 'Summit', a high-yielding soybean with race-specific resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Journal of Plant Registrations. doi: 10.3198/jpr2012.01.0012crc.
Mian MAR, Kang S-T, Beil SE, Hammond RB (2008) Genetic linkage mapping of the soybean aphid resistance gene in PI 243540. Theor Appl Genet. 117: 995-962.
Pham AT, Lee JD, Shannon JG, Bilyeu KD (2010) Mutant alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B combine to produce soybeans with the high oleic acid seed oil trait. BMC Plant Biol. 10:195.
Pham AT, Lee JD, Shannon JG, Bilyeu KD (2011) A novel FAD2-1A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content. Theor Appl Genet. 123: 793-802.
St. Martin SK, Calip-DuBois AJ, Fioritto RJ, Schmitthenner AF, McBlain BA, Cooper RL, Martin RJ (1995) Registration of 'Sandusky' Soybean. Crop Sci 35: 283-284.
St. Martin SK, Calip-DuBois AJ, Fioritto RJ, Schmitthenner AF, Min DB, Yang T-S, Yu YM, Cooper RL, Martin RJ (1996) Registration of ‘Ohio FG1’ Soybean. Crop Sci 26: 813.
St. Martin SK, Feller MK, McIntyre SA, Fioritto RJ, Dorrance AE, Berry SA, Sneller CH (2008) Registration of ‘Dennison’ Soybean. Journal of Plant Registrations 2: 21.
St. Martin SK, Mills GR, Fioritto RJ, McIntyre SA, Schmitthenner AF, Dorrance AE, Cooper RL (2001) Registration of ‘Kottman’ Soybean. Crop Sci. 41: 590-591.
Zhang B, Chen P, Florez-Palacios SL, Shi A, Hou A, Ishibashi T (2010) Seed quality attributes of food-grade soybeans from the U.S. and Asia. Euphytica. 173: 387-396.
Zhang G, Gu C, Wang D (2009) Molecular mapping of soybean aphid resistance in PI 567541B. Theor Appl Genet. 118: 473–482.
Zhang G, Gu C, Wang D (2010) A novel locus for soybean aphid resistance. Theor Appl Genet. 120: 1183-1191.